How to Care for a Toddler, 1577

It very often happens in early walking that the baby falls. Therefore, so that its face and head should not be hurt, I suggest that every day a kind of round hoop should be placed on its head, made of light linen cloth, or kid leather, and filled with cotton, like a royal crown, divided into four parts, whose form is seen here:

engraving of child's head with protective hat

I also suggest that sometimes it be put into a little walker, the kind they make in Italy especially for exercise like this, so that babies can’t fall as they walk around by themselves, which you see here for clarity:

engraving of toddler in walker

Then when it gets tired, or needs to be carried, we should sit it down in a little seat where it is confined, so that it can’t fall, and it can urinate and empty its bowels perfectly, without any obstacle, which you see here for clearer understanding:

engraving of potty chair with and without child

And because their reason is a little dull, we should always take away from the baby stones, wood, clubs, knives, glass, and every other iron implement of any kind, which could harm, jab, cut, crush, or injure them, and similarly they should be kept away from fire, water, wells, heights, and places where there are animals that can harm them by biting, with horns, or with their feet, like dogs, cows, horses, and so on.

Ognibene Ferrari, De arte medica infantium

Toddler care made simple: yes on the locking potty chair, Italian walker, and padded royal crown. Big no on the knives.