How to Make Waffles, 1393

manuscript illustration of woman cooking waffles over open fire Bodleian, Douce 6, f. 118v (c. 1320-1330)

Waffles are made in four ways.

First: beat eggs in a bowl, then add salt and wine, toss in some flour, and mix them together, then spread the batter bit by bit into two irons, each time adding as much batter as the size of a slice of cheese, and press it between the two irons, and cook it on one side and then the other. And if the irons do not release the waffle easily, grease them beforehand with a little cloth dipped in oil or fat.

The second way is like the first, but with cheese. That is, you spread the dough as if to make a tart or pastry, then put sliced cheese in the middle, and cover it with batter on top. That way the cheese stays between two pieces of dough and everything goes between two irons.

The third way is poured waffles, and they are called “poured” simply because the batter is thinner, like clear broth, made as above. And you add finely grated cheese and mix it all together.

The fourth way is with flour mixed with water, salt, and wine, without eggs or cheese.

Le ménagier de Paris

Highlights of medieval European culture: Gothic cathedrals, the rise of the universities, GRILLED CHEESE WAFFLES