How to Interpret Italian Gestures, 1562

philosophers doing gestures Raphael, The School of Athens (1509-11)

The Lomberd… is scorneful of his speche. He wyl geve an aunswer with wrieng his hed at the one side displaysynge his handes abrode. Yf he cast his head at the one syde & to shroge up his shoulders speake no more to hym, for you be answerd. The Italyons and some of the Venecions be of lyke disposicon.

Andrew Boorde, The Fyrst Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge

You strike up a conversation with a Renaissance Italian. He tilts his head, spreads his hands, and shrugs his shoulders. Translation: quit bothering me with your questions, silly foreigner.